Battle of Fort Carillon

The Battlefield

Fort Ticonderoga

Fort Ticonderoga today. This was The Prize. A witness to three wars, it was fatally flawed and compromised the day it became operational. However, the French, the British and the Americans fought over it for half a century. It between wars, it was abandoned and allowed to rot. In those periods, civilians looted it for materials and fuel, to the point where by 1850, there was almost nothing left. The present fort is a complete reconstruction, with few original components. The arrows mark the direction to the Carillon battlefield. The outlines of the French position are still there and clearly visible, along with several monuments that tell the story. **Historical Footnote: Click on the link to see a photo of the decimated fort.**

In northeast upstate New York near the Canadian border are two lakes – Lake George and Lake Champlain. They are long and narrow and form a straight line running north and south. They actually parallel each other for about 20 miles with a narrow strip of land between them. At its narrowest point, the land is only about one swampy mile across. If someone were to fortify that narrow point, they could control the traffic on both lakes. The French, the British and the Americans did just that during the colonial wars of the 18th and 19th centuries. The lake country of upstate New York was a battleground in three wars spanning six decades- the French and Indian War, the American Revolution and the War of 1812. The biggest and bloodiest encounter in all of them was the Battle of Fort Carillon on July 8, 1758. In fact, it was the costliest battle in North America until July 21, 1861, and the Civil War battle of First Manassas.

Lake George forms the southern end of this lake highway. It starts at the town of Lake George, NY. Relatively small and shallow – 32 miles long, 3 miles wide and average depth of 40 feet, it empties from south to north. At the northern end, it flows into the La Chute River, a short and wild waterway that empties into Lake Champlain. The La Chute River wasn’t navigable, so lake traffic had to be portaged overland.

Lake Champlain is the larger by far – 120 miles long, up to 12 miles wide and as much as 400 feet deep. It also empties from south to north into the Richelieu River, which in turn flows into the St Lawrence River just northeast of Montreal. (So if you’re traveling south on the lakes, you’re actually going “up the lake”).

Overhead of Ft Ticonderoga

A Google map overhead view of the Fort Carillon battle area. Mt. Defiance is 700 feet higher than the fort. The straight line distances are quite small. It’s only a mile from Mt. Defiance to the fort, putting it well within artillery range. The fort, which bristled with cannons, would have had a tough time responding to that threat. Shooting uphill changes the firing solution. The fort guns may not have been able to elevate their guns enough to even shoot back. The only real solution would be to occupy and fortify Mt. Defiance to deny its use to the enemy.

This little spit of land between the lakes was one of the most strategic spots on the colonial northern frontier. The northern end of these lakes puts you on the doorstep of Montreal and Quebec. The southern end offers a straight shot to Albany, the Hudson River Valley and New York City. Control of this route gave an attacker from either side a direct route into the heart of enemy territory. In 1755, during the second year of the French and Indian War, the French built a massive fort right on the portage – Fort Carillon. The British later named it after an Iroquois word meaning “the joining of waters” – Ticonderoga.

**Historical Footnote: Soon after the War of 1812, New York began building canals to connect inland waterways with ports on the Atlantic coast and the Great Lakes. The most famous was the Erie Canal. At the same time it was being built, workers were also building the Champlain Canal. This 60 mile long system connected the southern end of Lake Champlain to the Hudson River, completely bypassing Lake George. The Champlain Canal was an economic success and has been in continuous use since it opened in 1817. It carried substantial commercial traffic until the 1970’s. Now its primary users are recreational boaters.The northern end of the canal joins Lake Champlain at Whitehall, NY.**

The Battle

The early years of the French and Indian War went very badly for the British. From 1754 to 1758, they were outfought at every turn. Fort Necessity, Braddock’s Defeat, Grant’s Hill and others were debacles. Additionally, the war was bankrupting the empire and British commanders in North America were often weak and inept. The British government even started questioning the outcome of the war and whether it was worth continuing. **Historical Footnote: Unbeknownst to them, the French were in much worse shape. They were overextended world-wide and dead broke. It eventually cost them the war.**

In 1758, the new Prime Minister, William Pitt, settled that question. With the support of King George, he committed massive forces to defeat the French in North America. Britain embarked on a complex four pronged land and sea campaign. One of the primary strategic objectives was to gain control of the lakes in upstate New York. That would split French forces and cut off their supply routes. It also offered an attack route right to the capitol city of New France – Quebec. But first, they had to take Fort Carillon.

Mt Defiance

This down the barrel view of Fort Carillon/Ticonderoga from Mt. Defiance tells you all you need to know about how vulnerable the massive fort really was. Why did the French even build it here? They probably figured the top of the mountain would always be inaccessible to heavy guns and equipment.

In early July of 1758, 52 year old Major General James Abercrombie had the mission of taking the fort. He had 18,000 men, heavy guns and siege equipment. They faced 4,000 French defenders led by the Marquis de Montcalm, an experienced battle commander. Fort Carillon was an imposing structure but had a fatal flaw. There was high ground overlooking the fort less than a mile away to the southwest – well within artillery range. British engineering and artillery officers did a recon of the area. It was unoccupied, undefended and in perfect position to bombard the fort but a wilderness road would have to be built to get the heavy stuff on top. **Historical Footnote: The French named the high ground Rattlesnake Mountain. The British called it Sugar Loaf. The Americans named it Mt. Defiance. It’s now part of the Fort Ticonderoga Historical Site and can be visited while you’re there.**

A siege and bombardment would have made short work of Carillon and the French commander, the Marquis de Montcalm, knew it. In a gambit to change the odds, he ordered the construction of a strong entrenched position on a hill a half mile northwest of the fort blocking the British route of advance. In this area, there is bedrock right underneath the topsoil, making serious digging impossible. It was a log and dirt wall built up from the surface. In front of it, they felled trees to form abatis, a very effective obstacle to foot movement. They also built redoubts manned with artillery to protect their flanks. It was a very strong position. Out of range of their own guns, they hoped to sucker the British to fight out in the open. At the very least, they could draw some blood before British seige guns forced them to abandon the fort.

**Historical Footnote: Montcalm was a larger than life figure for the French in North America. He led their forces for almost the entire French and Indian War. He racked up victory after victory, usually in the thick of it with his soldiers. His most famous (and notorious) victory was the taking of Fort William Henry at the southern edge of Lake George. The siege, surrender and subsequent massacre were made famous in both the book and movie versions of “The Last of the Mohicans”. His luck ran out on September 14, 1759. He was killed in action on the Plains of Abraham during the fighting for Quebec. He was 47.**

Attack at Carillon

This painting of unknown origin shows the 42nd Highlander Regiment – the famed Black Watch – in action at the French defensive line. In the background, you can see the defensive works of parallel logs. It completely protected the French soldiers from rifle fire. Artillery would have made quick work of it, but Montgomerie didn’t bring any. The abatis of felled trees is vividly depicted. Note the sharpened stakes and the branches piled in between as tanglefoot. Also notice the smoke. Black powder muzzle-loaders produce an incredible amount of acrid, thick, white smoke. After hours of firing, the entire battlefield was probably shrouded in the stuff, with visibility near zero. What you don’t see is French artillery. Unlike Abercrombie, there was a method to their madness. Montcalm was trying to lure the British his way and he figured that charging into cannons would spook them. Also, the construction of the defense wasn’t suited for artillery. It was hastily built over the course of 2 days. They didn’t have time to chop firing apertures and construct firing platforms to hold the guns. They did have cannons on their flanks in case of a British breakthrough. That almost happened around 5:00 PM, when the highlanders somehow made it to the base of the wall. Some were able to clamber over it and fought hand to hand before being driven back by French bayonets.

Abercrombie took the bait – hook, line and sinker. On July 8, in a stunning display of incompetence, he decided to forget the siege, forget the high ground and end it quickly with his overwhelming numerical advantage. Leaving his artillery behind and tossing any semblance of tactics or maneuver out the window, he sent wave after wave of British soldiers across open ground in uncoordinated banzai attacks against the French position. The battle started around 1:00 PM and raged until nightfall. Darkness, exhaustion and soldiers abandoning the field finally forced him to call it off. During that entire time, Montgomerie never got close enough to the battle to see the slaughter.

The French lines today

The outlines of the French positions are still clearly visible today. The trenches are actually berms built up with dirt and not dug into the bedrock. The wooden palisade would have been on top.

The Aftermath

When it was over, almost 3,000 British dead and wounded lay on the battlefield. The decimated British force limped back to their base at the southern end of Lake George, expecting the French to swoop down on them at any minute. The French suffered about 400 casualties, which was 10% of their force – a significant degradation. They had no intentions of pursuing the British. Instead, Montcalm, who had been in the middle of things with his troops, had barrels of wine delivered to the lines while they prepared their defenses for another attack that never came. History was repeating itself. The French still had their fort and the British had yet another military disaster on their hands.

Abercrombie abandoned the Ticonderoga mission but didn’t want to return empty handed. Two hundred miles to the west, where the St. Lawrence River empties into Lake Ontario, was Fort Frontenac. It was an old fort, dating back to 1673 and was lightly defended. It was also the main supply base for the French frontier forts around the Great Lakes and down the Ohio River Valley. Abercrombie sent a force of 3,000 men commanded by Lt. Col. John Bradstreet to capture Fort Frontenac. They attacked on August 26 and the fort surrendered two days later. Bradstreet paroled the defenders, allowing them to walk away. Then the British helped themselves to the warehouses. What they couldn’t carry, they destroyed and with it went the supplies and materials to wage war and trade with the Indians. The seizure and destruction of this supply base did more damage to the French than had been done so far in the whole war.

Carillon battlefield

This is a photo of the killing ground taken from the top of a French trenchline. It would have been completely open. The trees you see are new growth. This was old growth virgin timber at the time of the battle but the area was completely cut down to build fortifications and clear fields of fire. Nobody knows for sure how many British soldiers fell here, but few, if any, were recovered. Their remains are still out there to this day.

**Historical Footnote: Major General James Abercrombie was a one trick pony. His place in history is defined solely by the disaster at Ticonderoga. For his appalling leadership there, he was recalled to England, promoted to Lt. General and became a member of Parliament for 20 years. There he became a leading voice for strong repressive measures against the insolent and ungrateful American colonies. He died at his Scottish estate in April 1781 at age 75 and is buried there.**

The loss at Fort Carillon was a major setback for the British campaign in North America, but it was too important to let go. A year later, it was in the crosshairs again. This time, British General Jeffrey Amherst was in command. His army dragged artillery up to the top of Mt. Defiance. Completely compromised and without a chance of a successful defense, the French quickly abandoned the fort, blowing up or destroying everything they could. The British entered the fort on July 27, 1759 without a shot being fired.

Author’s Comments

The Battle of Fort Carillon was a model find for Off the Beaten Path. It’s what my web page is all about. This was a big battle in a big war that nobody has ever heard of. From the point of view as a webmaster and historian, it’s fascinating. However, viewing it as a retired Marine officer, I find it disturbing and stupid.

War is full of unknowns. Sometimes, luck, weather, happenstance or other seemingly trivial events affect the outcome of a battle. So does stupidity. General Abercrombie did more stupid stuff in a shorter amount of time than probably any battle I’ve ever studied. It’s a classic military axiom that you’ll never have all the things you need to engage in battle, but Abercrombie came close. He had manpower, equipment, weapons, favorable weather, freedom of movement, a weakened opponent and most importantly – time. All he had to do was methodically lay siege to the fort.The French were in no position to mount any resistance except small spoiling attacks – which they did. The fort was untenable. The outcome was never in doubt – until Abercrombie got stupid. The Battle of Fort Carillon was a disaster but it wasn’t a game changer. The war went on and a year later, the fort was taken. A year after that, the French surrendered. The loss of 3,000 British soldiers for absolutely nothing is infuriating along with fact that Abercrombie was never held accountable for anything.

One of the trends throughout the French and Indian War is that the French constantly outfought, outmanuevered and outsmarted the British. The gambit at Carillon to sucker in the British was classic. They were aggressive and proficient in wilderness fighting, something the British never learned. France lost the war and their North American territory because of economics. They were simply overwhelmed by British logistics, engineering and manpower and they couldn’t afford to keep pace. By the end of the war, the French were eating their horses to survive.

If you like history, forts, battlefields, colonial towns, hiking, biking, back roads, canals, rivers and lakes, you’ll love upstate New York. It’s beautiful. The whole area is one big museum. All you have to do is drive down the road and you’ll find stuff. We were there in the fall to take in the colors and we were not disappointed. Leaves here peak around Columbus Day, which is when we visited. Be warned though – during the summer, the entire area is a crush of people. Make reservations well in advance and be prepared to wait in line for just about everything. Be sure to tour Lake George on a steamboat. Cell phone connectivity is good, so your geocaching killer app should work just fine. Geocaching is a great way to escape the crowds and get out into the countryside.

Hope you enjoyed the post and learned a few things. We sure did…Boris and Natasha

Jean Bonnet Tavern

Jean Bonnet Tavern

A ghost’s eye view of the Jean Bonnet Tavern.

Four miles west of Bedford, Pennsylvania is the Jean Bonnet (bo-nay’) Tavern, which has hosted travelers since the mid-1700’s. The Jean Bonnet Tavern has seen it all – war, peace, crime, rebellion, trade, Indian raids and westward migration as the nation grew. The tavern occupies a very strategic spot, sitting at the base of the eastern side of the Allegheny Mountains at the intersection of the Forbes Road (Route 30) and Glades Pike (Route 31). Those roads follow old Shawnee trading paths and are still the major east-west highways through the region.

The tavern is renowned for its old world charm, history, rustic decor and great food. It is also famous for its ghosts and hauntings.

In 1742, the French built a small fort and trading post here to carry on trade with the Shawnee. It was abandoned during the French and Indian War.

After the war, the British constructed a building on top of it and there has been one there ever since. The real Jean Bonnet bought the property from the British in 1779 and built the current structure using the thick stone walls of the French fort as the foundation. Those same stone walls are the walls of the downstairs restaurant today. The Jean Bonnet Tavern was very successful. Back then, this was the edge of the westerrn frontier. Anybody headed west over the mountains stopped here. It was the last place to outfit and prepare before heading into the frontier. Soon, it became a hub for commerce, exploration, socializing, politics – and justice.

Dining room with gallows beam

Part of the main dining room with the gallows of the French spy highlighted. There is also a good view of the original French fort walls.

It was a meeting place for both sides during the Revolutionary War. It survived the Indian raids of 1780 that savaged the region. Later, it was a gathering spot for farmers involved in the Whiskey Rebellion. Federal troops sent to quell the rebellion, led by President George Washington himself, encamped near the grounds. That was the one and only time the Commander-in-Chief has led troops in the field.

It watched as battles of the Civil War were fought less than 90 miles away, including Gettysburg and Antietam. In the week before Gettysburg, Pennsylvania militia troops skirmished with Confederate cavalry in Everett, only 10 miles away to the east.

At least two men are known to have been hanged here.

The Forbes Expedition of 1758 stopped here on its way to attack Fort Duquesne, the French base at the junction of the three rivers in modern-day Pittsburgh. A suspected French spy was hanged in the basement which is now the restaurant. His body was buried under the floor so the French would never know his fate. The beam that served as the gallows is still there. According to legends and ghost hunters, the spirit of the French spy is still there too.

In the 1760’s, a second floor was added to the original structure and was used as a circuit courtroom. Frontier justice was swift and several men were reportedly hanged. The only one documented with any certainty was a horse thief who stole horses from the Shawnee. He was tried and hanged while the Shawnee waited outside. They took his body with them.

In 1980, the tavern underwent a major renovation. Underneath the old floor downstairs workers found a human skeleton. Although it was never identified, testing showed the bones dated back to the late 1700’s.

Stone fireplace in the dining room.

The fireplace. The picture really doesn’t do it justice. It’s massive. Old pots and cooking utensils hang nearby. In the winter, there is a roaring fire going in it. They keep a smaller one going in the summer to fend off the chill of the night air in the Pennsylvania mountains. The room view in the previous picture (with the gallows pole) is directly behind the camera.

Hauntings and paranormal events have been observed or recorded at the Jean Bonnet Tavern for years. These include cold spots, strange lights, objects being moved, anomalies on pictures and apparitions. These have been observed or experienced by customers, guests and staff, including the owners. The tavern was featured on the Biography channel’s “My Ghost Story” in 2012. A Google search will bring up many more happenings.

However, most people come here for the atmosphere and the food. Going into the main dining room is like stepping back in time. It is quiet, cool and windowless with thick stone walls and the original massive exposed chestnut beams and columns. The focal point is the large fireplace that was once used to prepare the tavern meals. People with buckskin clothes and three corner hats would be right at home here.

Being a local native, I’ve been here dozens of times. Even though I haven’t lived in Pennsylvania for over 40 years, we make annual family visits and Jean Bonnet’s is always on the itinerary. I’ve never seen a ghost or had a bad meal. It’s the kind of place where you can just relax, enjoy the food and savor the surroundings. There are very few like it.

The GPS coordinates for the tavern are 40.0424, -78.5606. Click on the coordinates to bring up an interactive Google map.

If you like history and exploring, you’re surrounded by it here. Fort Necessity, the Allegheny Portage Railroad, the Johnstown Flood Memorial and the Flight 93 Memorial are all within an hour’s drive. Two hours will take you to Gettysburg, Antietam, Fort Ligonier and Frank Lloyd Wright’s architectural masterpiece Falling Water. That’s just for starters. Pennsylvania is one big museum. All you have to do is drive down the road and you’ll find stuff. That will give you plenty to see and do when you’re not hiking, biking or kayaking, which abound throughout the region.

Good haunting and bon appetite… Boris and Natasha

Battle of Grant’s Hill

Battle of Grant's Hill

The Battle of Grant’s Hill was very one-sided, as the British showed yet again that they were not proficient in fast moving, close in wilderness fighting. Twenty years later in the American Revolution, they still weren’t. It shouldn’t have been fought at all. Major Grant disobeyed orders, which stated he was not to get decisively engaged in a battle. There’s no trace remaining of the battle area. It’s now in the middle of the “Golden Triangle” in downtown Pittsburgh.

Summer 1758 in present-day western Pennsylvania. The French and Indian War is in its fourth year and so far, it’s been all French and Indians. There is no British military presence on the western frontier except a regiment of part-time volunteer Virginia militia commanded by George Washington. For three years, they have been fighting a lost cause, trying to hold back French and Indian raids across the depth and breadth of the colonial western frontier. These raids have plundered as far north as Lake Erie and south to the Potomac River while moving east as far as the Susquehanna River in the center of Pennsylvania.

The base for these raids is Fort Duquesne (dew-cane’), located at the junction of the three rivers in present-day Pittsburgh. This location was simply referred to as “The Forks”. From the northeast flows the Allegheny River.  Up from the southeast flows the Monongahela River.  They join at “The Forks” to form the Ohio River, which flows southwest to the Mississippi River. With all the navigable rivers and tributaries that connect to this water network, one can go from the Gulf of St. Lawrence via the Great Lakes all the way to the Gulf of Mexico. Whoever controls The Forks controls this inland water super highway, making it the most strategic and valuable piece of real estate in the interior.

There were several reasons why Great Britain was in this fix. The French and Indian War was part of the much larger Seven Years War. It was the first true world war and Britain was fighting world-wide on both land and sea.**Historical Footnote: They were fighting the French, Spanish, Austrians, Russians and Swedes (yes, Swedes). Their only ally was Germany.** The British government considered the French and Indian War to be a sideshow and a problem the colonials would have to deal with themselves. British officers and government officials already in North America tended to be dismissive of the colonials and especially the Indians, who they had no use for at all. The French, however, welcomed Native American support, who became a lethal mercernary wilderness army for the French.

Second, the British, who were the masters of the European battlefields, had no idea how to fight in the wilderness. Time and again, they were outfoxed and outfought by the French and their Native American allies. In fact, throughout the entire war, it was taken as gospel by the British that attempts to operate independently in Indian country were tantamount to suicide. It simply wasn’t done.

Outline of Fort Duquesne

This overhead view of “The Point” in Pittsburgh shows the outline of Fort Duquesne. It was tiny. The interior courtyard was about the size of a tennis court. Fort Pitt, which replaced it, was built in the same area and covered 13 acres. The settlement the sprung up outside the walls became Pittsburgh. **Historical Footnote: Both the fort and the town were named after William Pitt, the Leader of the House of Commons, future Prime Minister and driving force behind the British strategy to expel France from North America. Without his focus on that strategy and the means to carry it out, we might all be speaking French today.**

In 1758, Britain entered the war in force and with a newfound vigor. **Historical Footnote: Great Britain paid Germany to continue the fight in Europe. That freed them to throw the might of their empire into the North American War.** The most important strategic objective was the capture of Fort Duquesne in present-day Pittsburgh. General Edward Braddock had tried it three years earlier. On July 9, 1755, his force was cut to pieces on the banks of the Monongahela River by a smaller force of French and Indians. Braddock was killed. The ghost of Braddock’s Defeat haunted the British for the rest of the war. The unspoken rule for commanders was – “No more Braddocks”.

Now it was the mission of General John Forbes to capture Fort Duquesne. Forbes’ second-in-command was Lt.Col Henri Bouquet, a Swiss soldier-of-fortune who had been fighting for a living for 20 years. He may have been the best field officer in the British Army. Tough and savvy, he understood wilderness fighting and didn’t buy into this gospel that Brits alone couldn’t operate in Indian country. When they got close to Fort Duquesne, he decided to give the French and the Indians a taste of their own medicine.

The officer selected to lead it was Major James Grant, an officer with Montgomerie’s Highlanders. Grant was a bad tempered and impatient Scotsman who was tired of building wilderness roads and waiting. In his view, it was time to fight. Although he had been in the army since 1744, he had no wilderness fighting experience. Nevertheless, he convinced Bouquet that they should go big with a large force of several hundred men conducting what the military calls a “reconnaissance-in-force“. Grant left the forward base at Fort Ligonier on September 9 with 800 men – about 400 highlanders and 400 militia troops. Their orders were to create as much mayhem as possible around Fort Duquesne without getting trapped in an all out battle, take prisoners and bring back detailed information on the fort.

Grant planned and executed his movement well. They traveled light and carried everything in their haversacks. Noise and light discipline were strictly enforced. No fires at night. Barking dogs encountered along the way were killed. On September 13, they reached a hill several hundred yards away from the fort. They had gotten there undetected. Grant estimated there were 200 defenders and no sign of any Indians. Against all orders, he decided to attack the fort. His plan was to decoy the defenders out and ambush them in the open with a bigger force. Another section would be held in reserve further up the hill. Fifty Virginia militia troops were left further back to guard the packs. Some militia officers advised against the plan. Grant, who was openly contemptuous of colonial units, brushed them off.

The Allegheny County Courthouse in Pittsburgh.

Built in 1884, the Allegheny County Courthouse in Pittsburgh sits on the site of the Battle of Grant’s Hill. The hill itself was leveled in the early 1900’s to make room for development, but the area is still called Grant’s Hill. The first floor of the courthouse in the photo used to be the basement.Other than a few commemorative plaques, there’s no battlefield to visit.

At dawn on September 14, 1758, the French defenders of Fort Duquesne were greeted by an unbelievable sight. One hundred Scottish Highlanders, kilts and all, were marching towards the front gate to the music of bagpipes. The gates opened and defenders came rushing out while Indians came running up from the river banks where they were encamped unseen. Grant’s estimated 200 defenders inside the fort quickly became over 500 swarming all over them with more on the way from across the Allegheny River.

The decoy force was overwhelmed almost immediately. While that brief action was going on, other defenders went down to the rivers, ran along the banks and came up above and behind the rest of Grant’s force. The whole attack plan fell apart and desperation set in so the British used what they knew – European linear tactics. On the heavily timbered hillside, they tried to form up in ranks and volley fire.

It was right out of the Braddock playbook. Grant was on the verge of a completely successful mission when he got stupid. All up and down the hill, groups of British soldiers were surrounded and cut down by an enemy they couldn’t see or fight. Some of the British broke and ran for the “safety” of the river, where they became targets of the Indians. In a panic, some soldiers rushed headlong into the water and drowned. The only reason Grant’s force wasn’t completely annihilated is because the Virginians guarding the packs came forward and counterattacked. It bought enough time and space for survivors to bug out.

Of the 800 men who left Fort Ligonier, only 400 came back. The rest were dead or captured, with wounded men dying on the retreat. Grant himself was taken prisoner. It was a complete disaster and the very thing that Forbes and Bouquet had sworn would never happen on their watch. They still had no hard intelligence other than what survivors told them. They painted a picture of an impregnable fortress with thousands of defenders.

Despite that, Forbes pushed on, overwhelming the French with sheer numbers and a slow methodical approach. As they closed in on Fort Duquesne on November 25, the French blew it up and bugged out. The next day, the vanguard of Forbes’ army walked up to the gates of Fort Duquesne without a shot fired. There was nothing left but chimneys and iron frames, but that’s not all they found.

On their final approach march, they walked through Braddock’s kill zone from three years earlier. The bleached bones of Braddock’s men were still laying all around. When they got to the fort, they made another horrifying discovery. The heads of Grant’s captured highlanders were impaled on stakes a short distance away by the river bank. There was nothing to be done except bury them. Such was the nature of frontier warfare. But after five years, the British finally had Fort Duquesne. It was the beginning of the end for New France. Things went downhill fast for them as the British tightened the noose, driving the French out of the colonies and attacking Quebec and Montreal. The French surrendered after the capture of Montreal on September 8, 1760.

**Historical Footnote: Major Grant was a POW in Quebec for a year. He was released in a prisoner exchange and went home to England, becoming a member of Parliament. He returned to serve during the American Revolution, then returned to Parliament until his death in 1802. He blamed the colonial militia for the debacle that bears his name and his family connections blunted any political fallout. He was never held accountable for anything nor did he ever express any remorse or regret. He’s buried on his Scottish Estate.

**Historical Footnote: General John Forbes was a late-comer to the army, having been a physician first. At the time of his assignment to the Fort Duquesne mission, he was a dying man, ravaged by a disease (never identified) that kept him bedridden much of the time. He was the brains of the operation and Lt. Col. Bouquet was the brawn. Together, they got it done. Forbes left Fort Duquesne in early December, arriving in Philadelphia after a grueling six week trip on a litter slung between two horses. He died in early March and is buried in Philadelphia.

**Historical Footnote: Lt. Col. Henri Bouquet stayed at The Forks and built Fort Pitt. Five years later, he was in Philadelphia when Pontiac’s War exploded on the western frontier. Fort Pitt was attacked and under siege by a large force of Indians. Bouquet gathered a force and marched to relieve it. He was ambushed by Indians near a tiny way station called Bushy Run, about 40 miles from Fort Pitt. After two days of fierce fighting, he decisively defeated the attackers and moved on to relieve the fort. The Battle of Bushy Run broke the back of Pontiac’s War and got Bouquet promoted to Brigadier General. He was re-assigned to command Britain’s new souther command based in Pensacola, FL. As soon as he got there, he went down with yellow fever and was dead a week later. He is buried in St. Michael’s Cemetery in Pensacola but his gravesite is unknown.

Author’s Comments

Well, there’s not much to say. Major Grant “screwed the pooch” as we say in the military. Military history is full of guys like Grant – Braddock at Monongahela, Sickles at Gettysburg and Custer at the Little Bighorn come to mind. Combat actions favor the bold but there’s a fine line between that and recklessness. If you win, you’re bold. If you lose, you’re reckless. Sometimes you don’t know which until you go for it.

Taking Fort Duquesne was a big deal. It wasn’t pretty. The French defended aggressively as far forward as they could by attacking the attackers. When things got terminal, they destroyed the fort and bugged out to fight another day. They deprived the British of the satisfaction of capturing the fort intact. The Forbes Expedition never did prove its mettle in a fight. It was plodding, methodical operation that lasted for over six months. It was a marvel of logistics and engineering. They cut a new road through the wild, rocky and steeply wooded Allegheney Mountains that is still in use today – Route 30, also called the Forbes Road. Most importantly, it gave Britain a win when it sorely needed one. John Forbes was hailed as a hero destined for great things. He didn’t live long enough to enjoy it.

The city of Pittsburgh (my hometown) is one big museum. The steel mills and their rotten egg smell are long gone. Modern skyscrapers are mixed in with one-of-a-kind diners and everything in the Grant’s Hill neighborhood is within walking distance. Make sure you take the Duquesne Incline up to Mt. Washington for dinner. Also take a ride on the Gateway Clipper fleet, paddle wheelers that tour the rivers. Fort Duquesne and Fort Pitt are gone, but they live on in the John Heinz Museum at Point State Park. There is still a blockhouse standing from the original Fort Pitt.

If you like to find or collect things, Pittsburgh is the Mother Lode. Geocaches, Munzees, benchmarks, letterboxes and NPS Passport Stamps are in abundance here. The city is safe to move around in, unlike Fort Duquesne days. The only time you’ll get scalped is if you try to score Steelers tickets in the parking lot on game day.

Hope you enjoyed the post and learned a few things. We sure did……Boris and Natasha

The Unbelievable Exploits of Captain Robert Stobo

This entry has a number of hyperlinks to web pages I’ve done on those battles. If you like history, be sure to check them out.

One of the fascinating things about studying history is discovering facts and people that had a material effect on the events of the day but have been lost to time. One of those people from the French and Indian War was Captain Robert Stobo, whose exploits could have been an epic adventure novel if they weren’t true. Pictures of Captain Stobo are nowhere to be found, although several books have been written about him.

Born in Glasgow, Scotland in 1726, he migrated to Virginia to become a merchant like his father. As it turned out, he wasn’t crazy about a merchant’s life. His real call was the military. His family was friends with Governor Dinwiddie and Robert was commissioned a Captain in the Virginia militia. Shortly thereafter, he led an infantry company that reinforced George Washington at Fort Necessity, arriving just before the battle. When Washington surrendered to the French, he was required to provide them with two officers to hold as hostages to ensure the return of French prisoners taken weeks earlier at the skirmish at Jumonville Glen. Robert Stobo volunteered to be one of them.

Taken back to Fort Duquesne, Stobo was free to roam the grounds, since he was not a POW. He drank and played cards with the French and became fluent in the language, all the while gathering detailed information about the fort and its defenders. When the British refused to release the French prisoners, Stobo was sent to the French stronghold at Quebec. Before he left, he convinced a friendly Indian to deliver his intelligence to the British. He did and it ended up with General Braddock, who had it with him the day of his defeat at the Battle of the Monongahela. When the French ransacked what the British had left behind, they opened Braddock’s field trunk and found Stobo’s letters and diagrams of the fort. Stobo had signed them to prove their authenticity but in doing so, signed his own death warrant.

Stobo_Fort_Diagram

Captain Stobo’s diagram of Fort Duquesne. It was smuggled to General Braddock, then found by the French in his field trunk after his defeat. Stobo had also written several long letters about the French defenses and troops. These were found also.

Meanwhile, in Quebec, Stobo was doing his thing again. He had the run of the place and was allowed to mingle in the upper echelons of French-Canadian society. He was in the process of amassing a dossier on the French stronghold – right up to the point where they put him in chains and threw him in the dungeon as a spy. He was tried and convicted of espionage and sentenced to the gallows. The sentence was commuted to “long term confinement” by King Louis XV.

Stobo languished in Quebec’s dungeons for three years. He escaped twice only to be re-captured shortly after. Each time, his conditions became harsher. His third escape attempt was successful. On May 1, 1759, Stobo and seven others escaped from the dungeon and found a canoe on the riverbank. They canoed for days up into the treacherous Gulf of St Lawrence. There, they happened upon an anchored French schooner, which they hijacked at night, putting the crew off in the canoe. Along with a French captain and pilot, they sailed into the harbor at Louisburg, Nova Scotia 36 days and 700 miles after their escape.

StoboEscape3

Robert Stobo’s escape route May 1 to June 5, 1759. 36 days after their escape from the dungeons of the Quebec Citadel, Stobo and his party arrived in Louisburg, Nova Scotia. They sailed into the British port in a French schooner they had commandeered in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The British were preparing to lay seige to Quebec. Stobo provided valuable information to the British commander, General Wolfe, and wanted to get back into the fight. Wolfe said no and sent him back to Williamsburg, Virgina, where he got a hero’s welcome. The final Battle of Quebec came on September 13, 1759, after a three month siege. It lasted only 15 minutes on the Plains of Abraham, but both British General Wolfe and the French commander, General Montcalm, were killed.

By now, it was June 1759 and British General Wolfe was preparing to attack Quebec from his base in Halifax. Stobo gave his detailed intelligence to Wolfe, who used it to modify his plans and successfully take the French bastion. The capture of Quebec in September 1759 broke the back of the French forces in America. Less than a year later, in August 1760, they would lose Montreal and cease hostilities, although a formal peace treaty was still three years away.

Wolfe sent Stobo back to Williamsburg, VA. Arriving there over five years after he had originally left for Fort Necessity, he received a hero’s welcome, all his back pay and a commission in the British army. Stobo returned to the fighting. Commanding a company of British regulars, he saw extensive action in the Caribbean theater. He was seriously wounded while leading an attack on Morro Castle at the entrance to the harbor in Havana, Cuba. Occupation duty in America followed as the British strived to bring order to their new lands. He returned to England in 1768 intent on finishing his army career. However, he quickly became bored with peacetime garrison duty and disillusioned by army politics. A decade of fighting, captivity and depredation had taken their toll. He began to have health problems along with financial difficulties and started drinking heavily.

On June 19, 1770, 44 year old Robert Stobo blew his brains out.